Q: What types of restrictions does the U.S. government impose to combat the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs)?
A: The U.S. government imposes three separate sanctions programs designed to combat the proliferation of WMDs. The WMD Trade Control Regulations operate as a ban on imports into the U.S. from foreign persons who have engaged in proliferation-related activities. The Highly Enriched Uranium Agreement Assets Control Regulations relate to the property used to carry out international agreements between the U.S. and the Russian Federation for conversion of highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium. A third set of regulations blocks the property of WMD proliferators and their support networks.
Q: Do all three of the programs have the same requirements?
A: No, all three of the programs have different requirements.
Q: In addition to banning imports from certain foreign persons, what do the WMD Trade Control Regulations require?
A: The WMD Trade Control Regulations also prohibit importing goods or technology from third countries if the importer has reason to know that the goods contain raw materials, components, or technology produced by a designated foreign person. They also prohibit U.S. persons from financing, brokering, transporting or otherwise participating in the importation of any goods, technology or services produced by a designated foreign person.
Q: How is the conversion of highly-enriched uranium relevant to the U.S. government's attempts to combat the proliferation of WMDs?
A: Converting highly-enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium helps the U.S. and Russia achieve its goal of taking nuclear material from Russian nuclear weapons and dedicating it to peaceful uses. The conversion helps ensure that the material from these weapons does not have the potential to contribute to the proliferation problem.
Q: Under the set of regulations blocking the property of WMD proliferators and their support networks, what restrictions does that place on U.S. persons?
A: U.S. persons may not engage in any transaction or dealing with any party designated under the regulations. "U.S. persons" under these regulations includes any U.S. citizen, permanent resident alien, U.S. company and foreign branches, and any person or company in the U.S.
Q: Where can one find the names of the people and organizations designated based on these sanctions?
A: They are on the Office of Foreign Assets Control’s list of Specially Designated Nationals and Blocked Persons (SDN) with the code [NPWMD] at the end of their description.